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  1. About De Gruyter
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One of the greatest examples of the remarkable success of Ancient Egyptian women in science is the one of Tapputi-Belatikallim Figure 1E , who worked with chemicals utilized for aroma generation as a part of Mesopotamia around B. Remarkably, women in Ancient Egypt received a larger numbers of opportunities compared to women in Ancient Greece or Rome.

For example, Ancient Egyptian women who were educated could study any domain they chose, thus becoming experts in a chosen field e. From the New Kingdom forward, and surely by the Ptolemaic Period, such proof relates more to the non-first class i. By B. This proportion remained moderately consistent for the following 12 centuries. During the Ptolemaic Period, the preceding colossal human advancements of Ancient Egypt were represented as remarkable.

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For example, Merit Ptah, who lived circa B. Nevertheless, when the Roman Empire came to its diminishing days in the fourth century A. Hypatia, who lived from to A. Unfortunately, she endured a horrible death because of a Christian swarm, which dishonestly associated her with political interests Figure 2C. Remarkable Egyptian women during the Ptolemaic time.

For more than 70 centuries, Ancient Egyptian advancements offered those establishing beginnings, with which mankind guaranteed its human legacy for its incredible fairness for middle-class men and women without any sexism Table 1. TABLE 1. Table summarizes the names of remarkable women leaders during the Ancient Egyptian time. She was the main Ptolemaic ruler who learned the Egyptian language and adopted all the religious customs to become a genuine Pharaoh.

This helped her prominence within individuals outside the Greek rule either in Alexandria the capital city of Egypt by this time or in Upper Egypt; where she was worshiped as a divine being Jacobs, Cleopatra supported researchers and exploration at the colossal library of Alexandria, including well-known researchers and mathematicians. In the first or second century, Maria of Alexandria Figure 2B , also known as Maria the Jew, was the first female chemist to concoct the water shower, the three-outfitted still, and other synthetic gear Reshafim, ; Galpaz-Feller, The last renowned researcher of the ancient Coptic times was Hypatia Figure 2C , who was born around A.

She was viewed as the first female mathematician and studied at the University of Alexandria in arithmetic and stargazing.

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Other notable developments include a mechanical assembly for refining water and the hydrometer for measuring the thickness of fluids. She also contributed to theoretical works, book-keeping, and stargazing, and was accredited with the diagramming of the divine Table 2. TABLE 2. List of most recognized female leaderships during the Ptolemaic time. However, Egyptian women recently became bound by meeting customarily male criteria for exporting achievement, particularly in science, while being relied upon to fit generally female approaches of individual conduct.

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The outcome is that numerous young Egyptian women decide to keep a strategic distance from this conflict by evading exploratory professions. Therefore, it is simply not only young Egyptian women who need to change, but more importantly, a watchful evaluation is a necessary requirement for instructing techniques, contracting, and advancing women Fletcher, For over seven millennia, women played extraordinary roles in Ancient Egypt. Tragically, in recent times the role and impact of Egyptian women declined dramatically because of many erroneous religious and cultural beliefs.

Therefore, referring to female Western pioneers in Egyptian schools and in the Arabic media will certainly not have the same impact as referring to models within the same culture. Furthermore, the knowledge of female contributions in Ancient Egypt and historical female pioneers might also improve female self-efficacy since models are important sources of social learning and inspiration Bandura, Studies on media psychology provide valuable insights on the large effects of media images, especially on children and youth Burr, ; Karim, For instance, in a US study, children were asked how often they saw their race on television.

Remarkably, improving the media image of African-Americans since the s already had a remarkable impact on in-group and out-group perception of African-Americans compared with the previous decades Karim, : Karim et al. Moreover, several studies have shown that gender stereotypes in television and advertising can influence gender-role stereotypes in society, further perpetuating gender roles and gender inequality Signorielli, ; MacKay and Covell, ; Oppliger, For a review on gender inequality in the media in several countries see Matthes et al. Accumulated empirical evidence suggest that children and youth can learn a variety of behaviors, such as aggressive acts e.

However, there are also several debates about the limitations, disadvantages from media learning and the impact of psychological and sociocultural factors affecting how children and youth learn from media representations see e. Thus, future studies should empirically evaluate the impact of providing positive female models in school and in the media on the gender role in Egypt and in other Arabic countries and investigate the modulating effects of psychological and sociocultural factors.

These findings would have crucial implications for politicians and media campaigns aiming to combat gender inequality and discrimination in these societies. All authors listed, have made substantial, direct and intellectual contribution to the work, and approved it for publication. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. We would like to thank Dr. Bandura, A. Social Learning Theory. Google Scholar. Bureau of Labor Statistics Burr, S.

Television and societal effects: an analysis of media images of african- americans in historical context. Race Justice 4, — Bussey, K. Influence of gender constancy and social power on sex-linked modeling. Cahill, S. Language practices and self-definition: the case of gender identity acquisition. Chassiakos, R.

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  • Children and adolescents and digital media. Pediatrics e Collins, R. Cooney, K. Westminster, MD: Books on Tape. Council on Communications and Media Media use in school-aged children and adolescents. Dayan-Herzbrun, S. Femme et Politique au Moyen-Orient. Feeney, D.

    Fletcher, J. London: Hachette UK. Francis, B. Is gender a social construct or a biological imperative? Galpaz-Feller, P. Private lives and public censure: adultery in Ancient Egypt and Biblical Israel.

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    Near Eastern Archaeol. Graves-Brown, C. Dancing for Hathor: Women in Ancient Egypt. London: Continuum. Hacking, I. The Social Construction of What? Huesmann, L.

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    Hunt, N. Living in Ancient Egypt. Jacobs, J.

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    Karim, A. Kirchentellinsfurt: Artur Verlag. Why we need people with migration background as idols for children and youth: insights from media- and learning psychology. Kindheit Entwickl. Lopez, V. Effects of gender, media influences, and traditional gender role orientation on disordered eating and appearance concerns among Latino adolescents.

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    MacKay, N. The impact of women in advertisements on attitudes toward women. Sex Roles 36, — Manning, J. Matthes, J. Gender-role portrayals in television advertising across the globe. Sex Roles 75, — Moghadam, V. United Nations Development Programme.